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Blood Storage Centre

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Blood Products

ABO system

  • Consists of three allelic genes - A, B and O
  • A and B genes control synthesis of enzymes that add carbohydrate residues to cell surface glycoproteins
  • The O gene is an amorph and does not transform the glycoprotein
  • Six possible genotypes but only four phenotypes
  • Naturally occurring antibodies are found in the serum of those lacking the corresponding antigen.

ABO blood group system

Phenotype Genotype Antigens Antibodies Frequency (%)
O OO O Anti-A, Anti-B 46
A AA or AO A Anti-B 42
B BB or BO B Anti-A 9
AB AB AB None 3
Blood group O = universal donor
Blood group AB = universal recipient

Rhesus system

  • Rhesus antibodies are immune antibodies requiring exposure during transfusion or pregnancy
  • 85% population are rhesus positive
  • 90% of Rh-negative patients transfused with Rh-positive blood develop anti-D antibodies

Cross Matching Blood grouping

  • Patients red cells grouped for ABO and Rhesus antigens
  • Serum tested to confirm patients ABO group

Antibody screening

  • Detects atypical red cell antibodies in recipients serum

Cross matching

  • Tests donor red cells against patients serum

Blood products

  • Whole blood
  • Packed red cells
  • Granulocyte concentrates
  • Platelet concentrates
  • Human plasma - fresh frozen plasma / freeze-dried plasma
  • Plasma protein fraction
  • Human albumin 25%
  • Cryoprecipitate
  • Clotting factors - Factor VIII / IX
  • Immunoglobulin